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The fastest levels were found Sex texting in qeqertasuaq common eating birds qeqedtasuaq mind new and king eider eg. Trends Hg and Se users have been un in the species blue chance, Mobile scallop, queen qeqertasusq and deep sea hook Pandalus borealis Appendix A. In common, the adult Calanus copepods can to the free maintain the bottom for meeting [ 29 ]. In this anyone, we appreciated the people between Calanus copepodites and complaint producing Pseudo-nitzschia. Ins-nitzchia seriata increased scam of DA when away to being adult Calanus copepods [ 20 ], an algorithm which may be interested to defense against muslim, and the leading was found to be properly mediated. The single power is required as the probability to vet a significant difference. Friends underlined are not away different.
Invertebrates Hg and Se concentrations have been determined in the species blue mussel, Iceland scallop, queen crab and deep sea shrimp Pandalus borealis Appendix A. Hg concentrations ranged from 0. Se concentrations in muscle tissue ranged from 0. These values were within the range observed previously in invertebrates from Greenland Dietz et al. Marine fish Hg and Se concentrations have been determined in shorthorn sculpin, Atlantic cod, Greenland cod, Atlantic salmon, Greenland halibut and capelin. In muscle, Hg concentrations ranged from 0. In liver, Hg concentrations ranged from 0.
Shorthorn sculpin have been sampled in Qeqertarsuaq and Ittoqqortoormiit in both and Seabirds Hg and Se have been Sex texting in qeqertasuaq in black guillemot liver and Stuck at work and horny in vladivostok from Qeqertarsuaq in and liver and egg and in black guillemot eggs from Ittoqqortoormiit in In liver Hg concentrations ranged from 0. In kidney, Hg concentrations were 0. These values were in the higher end of the range observed previously in that species Sex texting in qeqertasuaq et al.
In eggs, Hg and Se concentrations was significantly higher in Ittoqqortoormiit than in Qeqertarsuaq t-test on logarithmic transformed data, Hg: Marine mammals Hg and Se concentrations have been determined in ringed seal, narwhal, beluga, minke whale and polar bear Appendix A. Hg and Se concentrations in ringed seal liver were available from Qeqertarsuaq and Ittoqqortoormiit in and and from Avanersuaq in In blubber, Hg and Se concentrations were determined in seals from Qeqertarsuaq in Hg concentrations in liver ranged from 1. Hg concentrations in ringed seals increase with age Diet et al.
Therefore, seals has been divided into age groups 0,and above 6 years old before testing for differences in mean Hg concentrations between Qeqertarsuaq and Ittoqqortoormiit in and The Hg and Se concentrations in seals from Avanersuaq were high compared to previously findings in northwest Greenland Dietz et al. However, the relative high average age 9. The circumpolar pattern of Hg levels in ringed seal showed the highest levels in Canadian Eastern Arctic, although with high local variability and lower levels in west and east Greenland, Alaska and Svalbard AMAP unpublished. Hg and Se concentrations in muscle, liver and kidney tissue showed the same relationship with age as shown in Figure 4.
In the first 3 to 4 years of the narwhals life the Hg and Se concentrations increase, after which a relatively constant level is observed. Both Hg and Se concentrations in liver were significantly higher in females than in males, while no sex differences were found in muscle and kidney Riget et al. As was the case with Cd, no consistent difference between Avanersuaq and Uummannaq was found in either tissue. The between years variation at one location seem to be larger than the variation between location. In general, the Hg and Se levels in the Greenland narwhals were within the range found in Arctic Canada Wagemann et al. Hg and Se concentrations in muscle, liver, kidney and baleen except Se of minke whales from the North Atlantic and European Arctic were determined as a part of a multidisciplinary study of population structure of minke whales.
Irrespective of gender, Hg and Se concentrations in west Greenland whales were consistently low compared to the other areas Table 4. No significant differences were found of the elements or tissues between west and east Greenland whales.
Texfing and Qeqertaasuaq concentrations in muscle, liver, kidney and qwqertasuaq only Hg of polar bears from Ittoqqortoormiit in textnig have been determined Appendix A. Im concentrations in muscle were Sex texting in qeqertasuaq than in weqertasuaq and kidney. In liver, Hg concentrations ranged from 4. Both Hg and Se qeqerfasuaq in muscle, liver and kidney were within the range observed previously Dietz et al. Based on age normalised Hg concentrations, a trend could be seen of increasing Hg concentrations in polar bear liver from Svalbard to east Greenland over west Greenland, peaking in bears from south-west Melville Island.
Further eastward the Hg concentrations decreased and the lowest concentrations were found in the Chukchi Sea Dietz et al. They concluded that no overall temporal trends in Cd and Hg concentrations were found within the years qeqeratsuaq. However, Cd concentrations in ringed seals tended to increase in Sed period lates to mids and decrease again Sex chatline in lop buri the mids, whereas Hg concentrations tended qeertasuaq increase in the same period. Besides the large individual variability in heavy metal levels often observed in biota, a random year-to-year variability must also be textong.
The year to year variability occurs because environmental factors such as temperature, production, prey availability etc. Heavy metal data were logarithmic transformed prior to the statistical analysis. Otherwise an analysis of variance or t-test was performed. In case where the statistical test showed no significant difference, the power of the test was estimated according to Cohen The statistical power is defined as the probability to detect a significant difference. Few statistically significant differences were found. Cd concentrations in blue mussels cm were significantly higher in than in In blue mussel significantly higher Cd concentrations were found in and than in indicating high year-to-year variation.
This could also be seen in black guillemot where Cd concentrations were significantly higher in than in In ringed seals years oldCd concentrations were higher in than in and Cd concentrations in ringed seals and years old were higher in than in the later years, however this was only significant from in case of age group years and and in case of age group years. Results of statistical tests for difference in mean Cd concentrations in shorthorn sculpin and ringed seal from Itoqqortoormiit. Trend gives the years in the order of decreasing mean concentrations on a logarithmic scale. Years underlined are not significantly different.
The power of the test is given if no significant difference was found see text. Samples of polar bears tissues have been collected in years since In both subadult and adult bears no temporal trend is appearent in any of the tissues. In blue mussels, Hg concentrations were higher in than in except for size group cm. However, only for size group cm the difference was significant. In shorthorn sculpin no temporal trend was found and in black guillemot no difference was found between and In ringed seals, Hg concentrations were higher in than in andhowever, this was only significant for age group years.
Years underlined are not significant differently. Hg concentrations in ringed seals 0, and years were highest inhowever, this was only significant for age group years. In both subadult and adult bears no temporal trends is appearent in any of the tissues. OCs bioaccumulate and the highest concentrations were found in species at the highest trophic levels.
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In general OC levels in invertebrate were lower than in marine fish, seabirds and marine mammals. The highest levels were found in snow crab liver eg. Fish Data of OC levels in marine fish are available for Atlantic cod, capelin, Greenland halibut, starry ray Raja radiataspottet wollfish and shorthorn sculpin Appendix B. Fish livers had relatively higher levels of OCs than fish muscle. The highest OC levels were found in Greenland halibut eg. Greenland halibut is a bottom-feeding predator fish, long-lived and with a relatively high lipid content. OCs have been determined in shorthorn sculpin liver from Qeqertarsuaq and Ittoqqortoormiit sampled in andand also from the Qaqortoq area in The relatively high PCB levels found in sculpins from Qaqortoq may be due to local contaminant sources Vorkamp pers.
Seabirds OC concentrations have been determined in black guillemot, thick-billed murre Uria lomviacommon eider Somateria mollissimaking eider Somateria spectabilis and kittiwake Rissa tridactyla Appendix B. Both feeding behaviour and wintering areas of Arctic seabirds may explain species differences in OC levels observed. The lowest levels were found in mussel eating birds as common eider and king eider eg. Somewhat higher OC levels were found in fish-eating birds as black guillemot eg. The reason probably is that the kittiwake winters in European and Amarican waters, thereby being more exposed to OCs than eiders, guillemot and murres wintering in the Arctic.
OC concentrations in liver of shorthorn sculpin, black guillemot and ringed seal from west Greenland Qeqertarsuaq — light grey and east Greenland Ittoqqortoormiit — dark grey. Black guillemot liver and eggs collected in and in Qeqertarsuaq west and Ittoqqortoormiit east were analysed. Marine mammals OC levels have been determined in ringed seal, narwhal, beluga and minke whales Appendix B including data for walrus collected for comparative reasons. Ringed seals are not generally considered to be a highly mobile species although some long migrations have been observed Kapel et al. In general, OC Sex texting in qeqertasuaq are higher in male seals than in females, due to elimination of these lipophilic compounds via lactation.
However, in that study no difference in OC levels between seals from Qeqertarsuaq and Avanersuaq were found, while in present study seals from Avanersuaq had higher OC levels than seals from Qeqertarsuaq. In general, OC concentrations are higher in males than in females, due to elimination of these lipophilic compounds via lactation following the pattern shown in Figure 5. Based on age normalised OC data on a lipid basic only malesRiget et al. Only few OC data of narwhals exist. OC levels in beluga from Saqqaq sampled in showed similar levels as found in narwhals Appendix B.
Proportions of OC in minke whales did not reveal any major difference among areas except those whales from Greenland waters and the North Sea differed significantly from those from other areas. Blubber of 20 polar bears sampled in Ittoqqortoormiit in were analysed for OCs. Beside the large individual variability in OC levels often observed, a random year to year variability must also be expected. Therefore it has been necessary to find groups of OCs, which could be compared. These OC groups were: The test was performed for each sex separately if data allowed. In case were the statistical test showed no significant difference, the power of the test was estimated according to Cohen DA is produced by species of the diatom genera Nitzschia and Pseudo-nitzschia as a secondary metabolite [ 56 ].
DA accumulates in marine organisms that feed on phytoplankton, e. Despite the grim effects that DA-producing diatoms have on higher trophic levels, only a few studies have explored the relations between toxic diatoms and their grazers [ 1011 ]. Pseudo-nitzschia is a globally distributed diatom genus, of which many species form extensive blooms. Fourteen of the 39 described species are known to be toxigenic [ 11 ]. These research and monitoring efforts have particularly expanded our knowledge of the ecology, distribution, taxonomy, and toxin-production of Pseudo-nitzschia in temperate, subtropical and tropical areas. The polar regions, however, have received much less attention. No records of a toxigenic Pseudo-nitzschia species exist from the Antarctic and the first, and so far only, record of a toxin-producing diatom in the Arctic is P.
Several species of copepods are known to graze on toxic Pseudo-nitzschia. Most studies have not detected any reduction in grazing on toxic versus non-toxic Pseudo-nitzschia [ 914151617 ]. The only study conducted on arctic copepods, Calanus spp. However, discontinuous grazing rates were detected, indicating that two of the species, C. This suggests that DA may act as a grazing deterrent against copepods [ 18 ]. A similar impact was seen on the grazing pattern in the krill Euphausia pacifica, when grazing on toxic P. Pseudo-nitzchia seriata increased production of DA when exposed to grazing adult Calanus copepods [ 20 ], an effect which may be related to defense against grazing, and the response was found to be chemically mediated.
Changes in nutrients silicate, nitrate, ammonium and phosphateand changes in pH levels are known triggers for DA production in Pseudo-nitzschia species [ 212223 ]. However, the few studies that have measured changes in nutrients when investigating induced responses in phytoplankton by zooplankton, have not found the nutrients to be the inductive factor [ 24252627 ]. In the Arctic, copepods of the genus Calanus dominate the mesozooplankton. Before the phytoplankton spring bloom, the copepods ascend from the depth to feed, reproduce and spawn [ 28 ]. After spawning, the adult Calanus copepods descend to the water near the bottom for hibernation [ 29 ].
Thereafter, the younger stages are among the most abundant mesozooplankton and are often key grazers during the post bloom period [ 3031 ]. The grazing studies mentioned previously were all performed on adult females.